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NITROUS OXIDE
Product Name:
Nitrous Oxide
Chemical Name:
Nitrous Oxide
Formula:
N2O 0
Chemical Family: Oxidizer 2 0
Use:
Medical, industrial, food industry OX
Synonyms:
Dinitrogen monoxide, laughing gas, nitrogen monoxide, nitrous oxide USP

NFPA Fire: 0 HMIS Fire:
0 Acute:
Yes

NFPA Health: 2 HMIS Health:
2 Chronic:
Yes

NFPA Reactivity: 0 HMIS Reactivity:
0 Fire:
Yes

NFPA Special Hazard: OX Mixture:
No Reactive:
No

Sudden Release Pressure:
Yes
02. INGREDIENTS - COMPOSITION & INFORMATION

PERCENT EXPOSURE GUIDELINES
COMPONENT CAS No. (BY WT.) OSHA - TWA ACGIH - STEL
Nitrous Oxide 10024-97-2 99.0% 100.0% None. 50ppm
LD50: None. LC50: None. Note: NIOSH has recommended a TWA of 25 ppm during

anesthetic administration, and 50 ppm in dental offices.
03. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:

Warning:
High pressure oxidizing liquid and gas.

Vigorously accelerates combustion.

Can cause rapid suffocation.

Can cause anesthetic effects.

May cause frostbite.

Potential Health Effects Information:

Routes of Exposure:

Inhalation:
Simple asphyxiant. Nitrous oxide is nontoxic, but may cause suffocation by

displacing the oxygen in air. Exposure to oxygen-deficient atmosphere (<19.5%)

may cause dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, excess salivation, diminished

mental alertness, loss of consciousness and death. Exposure to atmospheres

containing 8-10% or less oxygen will bring about unconsciousness without warning

and so quickly that the individuals cannot help or protect themselves. Lack of

sufficient oxygen may cause serious injury or death.

Exposure to concentrations of 50% or greater will produce euphoria, loss of

coordination, slurred speech, dulling of senses, loss of consciousness, and clinical

anesthesia. These symptoms may resemble intoxication, hence the name "laughing

gas". At higher concentrations, approaching 100%, inhalation may cause deep

breathing, dizziness, nausea, and central nervous system depression.

WARNING: The misuse of nitrous oxide can cause death by reducing the amount

of oxygen necessary to support life. Nitrous oxide abuse can impair an individual's

ability to make and implement life sustaining decisions.

Eye Contact:
Contact with liquid or cold vapor can cause freezing of tissue.

Skin Contact:
Contact with liquid or cold vapor can cause frostbite.

Chronic Effects:
Nitrous oxide has been associated with several effects from long term exposure.

The most strongly substantiated effect is neuropathy (degenerative changes to the

nervous system). Complaints include numbness, tingling of hands and legs, loss of

feeling in fingers, poor balance, and muscular weakness. Epidemiological studies

also suggest feto-toxic effects and higher incidents of spontaneous abortion in

exposed personnel. Although no cause and effect relationship has been firmly

established, exposure to the gas should be minimized.

Medical Conditions Aggravated By
Pregnant women should avoid exposure to nitrous oxide. See Section 11

Overexposure:
"Toxicological Information"

Other Effects Of Overexposure
See Section 11 "Toxicological Information".

Carcinogenicity:
Nitrous oxide is not listed by NTP, OSHA or IARC.
04. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Persons suffering from lack of oxygen should be removed to fresh air. If victim is

not breathing, administer artificial respiration. Vomiting may occur as the person

awakes. In order to prevent aspiration, exposed individuals should be placed on

their side with their head at the level or slightly lower than their body. If breathing is

difficult, or dulling of senses is present, administer oxygen. Obtain prompt medical

attention.



Rescue personnel should be aware of the extreme fire hazards associated with

oxidizer-enriched atmospheres.

Eye:
Contact with liquid or cold vapor can cause freezing of tissue. Gently flush eyes

with lukewarm water. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Skin:
Contact with liquid or cold vapor can cause frostbite. Immediately warm affected

area with lukewarm water not to exceed 105F (40C).

Ingestion:
None.

Note To Physician:
Nitrous oxide may suppress immunological function when administered for

anesthetic purposes. This may reduce the resistance to infection and other

immuno-dependent disease processes. Nitrous oxide may cause vitamin B-12

deficiency. Megaloblastic anemia and nervous system disorders can occur as a

result of this chemically induced deficiency. More detailed information can be found

in Section 11 "Toxicological Information".
05. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Not applicable; Gas.

Auto ignition:
Nonflammable.

Flammable Limits - Lower:
Not applicable.

Flammable Limits - Upper:
Not applicable.

Extinguishing Media:
Nitrous oxide is nonflammable and will support combustion. Use extinguishing

media appropriate for the surrounding fire.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate all personnel from the danger area. If possible, shut off flow of nitrous

oxide which is supporting the fire. Immediately cool containers with water spray

from maximum distance. When cool, move containers from fire area, if without

risk.

Fire And Explosion Hazards:
Oxidizing agent, vigorously accelerates combustion. Some materials which are

noncombustible in air will burn in the presence of an oxidizing agent. Nitrous oxide

may form explosive compounds when exposed to combustible materials or oil,

grease, and other hydrocarbon materials.



Upon exposure to intense heat or flame, cylinder will vent rapidly and/or rupture

violently. Most cylinders are designed to vent contents when exposed to elevated

temperatures.



Pressure in a container can build up due to heat and it may rupture if pressure relief

devices should fail to function.

Hazardous Combustion Products:
None known.

Sensitivity To Static Discharge:
Not applicable.

Sensitivity To Mechanical Impact:
None.
06. ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES

Steps to be taken is material is released
Evacuate all unnecessary personnel from the affected area. Shut off source of

or spilled:
nitrous oxide, if possible. Remove sources of heat, ignition and, if possible, separate

combustibles from the leak.

Ventilate enclosed area or move leaking container to a well-ventilated area. If

leaking from cylinder or its valve, contact your supplier.
07. HANDLING AND STORAGE

Storage:
Store and use with adequate ventilation. Cylinders should be separated from

flammables by a minimum distance of 20 ft. or by a barrier of non-combustible

material at least 5 ft high having a fire resistance rating of a least 1/2 hour.

Cylinders should be stored upright with valve protection cap in place and firmly

secured to prevent falling or being knocked over. Post "No Smoking or Open

Flames" signs in the storage area. Protect cylinders from physical damage; do not

drag, roll, slide or drop. Do not allow storage area temperature to exceed 125F

(52C). Full and empty cylinders should be segregated. Use a first-in, first-out

inventory system to prevent full containers from being stored for long periods of

time.



Because of its "laughing gas" anesthetic effect, nitrous oxide is often subject to theft

and misuse. Cylinders should be stored and used in a controlled area.

Handling:
Use a suitable hand truck for cylinder movement. Never attempt to lift a cylinder

by its valve protection cap. Keep cylinders and their valves free from oil and

grease. Open valve slowly. If user experiences difficulty operating cylinder valve,

discontinue use and contact supplier. Never insert an object (e.g., wrench,

screwdriver, pry bar, etc.) into valve cap openings. Doing so may damage valve,

causing a leak to occur. Never strike an arc on a compressed gas cylinder or make

a cylinder a part of an electrical circuit. Use an adjustable strap wrench to remove

over-tight or rusted caps. For additional precautions in using nitrous oxide see

Section 16 - Other Information.
08. EXPOSURE CONTROLS - PERSONAL PROTECTION

Engineering Controls:

Ventilation:
Natural or mechanical to prevent accumulation in worker's breathing zone above

exposure limits. (See Section 2).

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE):

Glasses:
Safety glasses are recommended when handling cylinders.

Shoes:
Safety shoes are recommended when handling cylinders.

Gloves:
Work gloves are recommended when handling cylinders. If used, gloves must be

clean and free of oil and grease.

Respirator:
None required in general use.

Emergency Use:
Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) or positive pressure airline with mask

are to be used in oxygen-deficient atmosphere. Respirators will not function.
09. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Physical State:
Gas

Color:
Colorless

Odor:
Slightly sweet

Molecular Weight:
44.013

Boiling Point:
-127.4F ( -88.5C) @ 1 atm

Specific Gravity:
1.53 At 70F (21.1C) @ 1 atm, Air = 1

Freezing/Melting Point:
-131.5F (-90.8C) at 1 atm

Vapor Pressure:
745 psig at 70F

Vapor Density:
.1146 lb./cu ft (1.947kg/CuM), At 70F (21.1C) @ 1 atm

Water Solubility:
1.3 Vol./Vol. At 32 F (0C)

Expansion Ratio:
Not Applicable - Gas

pH:
Not Applicable - Gas

Odor Threshold:
None Known

Evaporation Rate:
Not Applicable - Gas

Coefficient Of Water/Oil Distribution:
Information not available
10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Chemical Stability:
Stable

Incompatibility With Other Materials:
Flammable materials, hydrocarbons such as oils and grease, asphalt, ethers, alcohols,

acids and aldehydes. Alkali metals, boron, tungsten carbide, and aluminum.

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Nitrogen and oxygen.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Will not occur
11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Other Studies Relevant To Material:
Exposure to nitrous oxide has produced embryofetal toxicity in animals as evidenced

by reduced fetal weight, delayed ossification, and increased incidence of visceral

and skeletal variations. Exposure may be associated with increased incidence of

abortion in humans. Single prolonged exposure to high concentrations of nitrous

oxide has resulted in bone marrow injury and adverse effects in blood.

Irritancy Of Material:
None.

Reproductive Effects:
None.

Teratogenicity:
None.

Synergistic Materials:
None.

Sensitization To Material:
None.

Mutagenicity:
None.
12. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

ECOTOXICITY:
No adverse ecological effects are expected. Nitrous oxide does not contain any

Class I or Class II Ozone depleting chemicals (40 CFR Part 82). Nitrous oxide is

not listed as a marine pollutant by DOT (49 CFR Part 171).
13. DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS

Waste Disposal Method:
Do not attempt to dispose of residual or unused quantities. Return cylinder to

supplier.

For emergency disposal, discharge slowly to the atmosphere in a well ventilated

area or outdoors away from all sources of ignition.
14. TRANSPORT INFORMATION

DOT/IMO Shipping Name:
Nitrous oxide

Hazard Class:
2.2 (Non Flammable gas.)

Identification Number:
UN 1070

PIN:
1070

Product RQ:
None.

Shipping Label:
Nonflammable Gas and Oxidizer.

Placard (When Required):
Nonflammable Gas.

Special Shipping Information:
Cylinders should be transported in a secure position, in a well ventilated vehicle.

The transportation of compressed gas cylinders in automobiles or in closed-body

vehicles can present serious hazards and should be discouraged.

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